Arabian nights

arabian nights

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Let's live out your fantasy now. Best role play you had. Robert Irwin summarises their findings:. In the s and s a lot of work was done on the Nights by Zotenberg and others, in the course of which a consensus view of the history of the text emerged.

Most scholars agreed that the Nights was a composite work and that the earliest tales in it came from India and Persia. At some time, probably in the early 8th century, these tales were translated into Arabic under the title Alf Layla , or 'The Thousand Nights'.

This collection then formed the basis of The Thousand and One Nights. The original core of stories was quite small. Then, in Iraq in the 9th or 10th century, this original core had Arab stories added to it—among them some tales about the Caliph Harun al-Rashid.

Also, perhaps from the 10th century onwards, previously independent sagas and story cycles were added to the compilation [ In the early modern period yet more stories were added to the Egyptian collections so as to swell the bulk of the text sufficiently to bring its length up to the full 1, nights of storytelling promised by the book's title.

Devices found in Sanskrit literature such as frame stories and animal fables are seen by some scholars as lying at the root of the conception of the Nights.

The influence of the Panchatantra and Baital Pachisi is particularly notable. It is possible that the influence of the Panchatantra is via a Sanskrit adaptation called the Tantropakhyana.

Only fragments of the original Sanskrit form of this work exist, but translations or adaptations exist in Tamil, [14] Lao, [15] Thai [16] and Old Javanese.

In the 10th century Ibn al-Nadim compiled a catalogue of books the "Fihrist" in Baghdad. He noted that the Sassanid kings of Iran enjoyed "evening tales and fables".

He also writes disparagingly of the collection's literary quality, observing that "it is truly a coarse book, without warmth in the telling".

In the s, the Iraqi scholar Safa Khulusi suggested on internal rather than historical evidence that the Persian writer Ibn al-Muqaffa' may have been responsible for the first Arabic translation of the frame story and some of the Persian stories later incorporated into the Nights.

This would place genesis of the collection in the 8th century. In the midth century, the scholar Nabia Abbott found a document with a few lines of an Arabic work with the title The Book of the Tale of a Thousand Nights , dating from the 9th century.

This is the earliest known surviving fragment of the Nights. Some of the earlier Persian tales may have survived within the Arabic tradition altered such that Arabic Muslim names and new locations were substituted for pre-Islamic Persian ones, but it is also clear that whole cycles of Arabic tales were eventually added to the collection and apparently replaced most of the Persian materials.

One such cycle of Arabic tales centres around a small group of historical figures from 9th-century Baghdad, including the caliph Harun al-Rashid died , his vizier Jafar al-Barmaki d.

Another cluster is a body of stories from late medieval Cairo in which are mentioned persons and places that date to as late as the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

Two main Arabic manuscript traditions of the Nights are known: The Syrian tradition includes the oldest manuscripts; these versions are also much shorter and include fewer tales.

It is represented in print by the so-called Calcutta I — and most notably by the Leiden edition , which is based above all on the Galland manuscript.

It is believed to be the purest expression of the style of the mediaeval Arabian Nights. Texts of the Egyptian tradition emerge later and contain many more tales of much more varied content; a much larger number of originally independent tales have been incorporated into the collection over the centuries, most of them after the Galland manuscript was written, [37] and were being included as late as in the 18th and 19th centuries, perhaps in order to attain the eponymous number of nights.

The final product of this tradition, the so-called Zotenberg Egyptian Recension , does contain nights and is reflected in print, with slight variations, by the editions known as the Bulaq and the Macnaghten or Calcutta II — All extant substantial versions of both recensions share a small common core of tales: The texts of the Syrian recension do not contain much beside that core.

It is debated which of the Arabic recensions is more "authentic" and closer to the original: The first European version — was translated into French by Antoine Galland from an Arabic text of the Syrian recension and other sources.

He wrote that he heard them from a Syrian Christian storyteller from Aleppo , a Maronite scholar whom he called "Hanna Diab. As scholars were looking for the presumed "complete" and "original" form of the Nights, they naturally turned to the more voluminous texts of the Egyptian recension, which soon came to be viewed as the "standard version".

The first translations of this kind, such as that of Edward Lane , , were bowdlerized. Burton's original 10 volumes were followed by a further six seven in the Baghdad Edition and perhaps others entitled The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Night , which were printed between and It has, however, been criticized for its "archaic language and extravagant idiom" and "obsessive focus on sexuality" and has even been called an "eccentric ego-trip " and a "highly personal reworking of the text".

Later versions of the Nights include that of the French doctor J. Mardrus , issued from to It was translated into English by Powys Mathers , and issued in Like Payne's and Burton's texts, it is based on the Egyptian recension and retains the erotic material, indeed expanding on it, but it has been criticized for inaccuracy.

Mahdi argued that this version is the earliest extant one a view that is largely accepted today and that it reflects most closely a "definitive" coherent text ancestral to all others that he believed to have existed during the Mamluk period a view that remains contentious.

In a new English translation was published by Penguin Classics in three volumes. It is translated by Malcolm C. Lyons and Ursula Lyons with introduction and annotations by Robert Irwin.

It contains, in addition to the standard text of Nights, the so-called "orphan stories" of Aladdin and Ali Baba as well as an alternative ending to The seventh journey of Sindbad from Antoine Galland 's original French.

As the translator himself notes in his preface to the three volumes, "1493o attempt has been made to superimpose on the translation changes that would be needed to 'rectify' Moreover, it streamlines somewhat and has cuts.

In this sense it is not, as claimed, a complete translation. Scholars have assembled a timeline concerning the publication history of The Nights: The One Thousand and One Nights and various tales within it make use of many innovative literary techniques , which the storytellers of the tales rely on for increased drama, suspense, or other emotions.

An early example of the frame story , or framing device , is employed in the One Thousand and One Nights , in which the character Scheherazade narrates a set of tales most often fairy tales to the Sultan Shahriyar over many nights.

Many of Scheherazade's tales are also frame stories, such as the Tale of Sindbad the Seaman and Sindbad the Landsman being a collection of adventures related by Sindbad the Seaman to Sindbad the Landsman.

An early example of the " story within a story " technique can be found in the One Thousand and One Nights , which can be traced back to earlier Persian and Indian storytelling traditions, most notably the Panchatantra of ancient Sanskrit literature.

The Nights , however, improved on the Panchatantra in several ways, particularly in the way a story is introduced.

In the Panchatantra , stories are introduced as didactic analogies, with the frame story referring to these stories with variants of the phrase "If you're not careful, that which happened to the louse and the flea will happen to you.

The general story is narrated by an unknown narrator, and in this narration the stories are told by Scheherazade. In most of Scheherazade's narrations there are also stories narrated, and even in some of these, there are some other stories.

Within the "Sinbad the Sailor" story itself, the protagonist Sinbad the Sailor narrates the stories of his seven voyages to Sinbad the Porter.

In yet another tale Scheherazade narrates, " The Fisherman and the Jinni ", the "Tale of the Wazir and the Sage Duban " is narrated within it, and within that there are three more tales narrated.

Dramatic visualization is "the representing of an object or character with an abundance of descriptive detail, or the mimetic rendering of gestures and dialogue in such a way as to make a given scene 'visual' or imaginatively present to an audience".

This technique dates back to the One Thousand and One Nights. A common theme in many Arabian Nights tales is fate and destiny.

The Italian filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini observed: So a chain of anomalies is set up. And the more logical, tightly knit, essential this chain is, the more beautiful the tale.

By 'beautiful' I mean vital, absorbing and exhilarating. The chain of anomalies always tends to lead back to normality. The end of every tale in The One Thousand and One Nights consists of a 'disappearance' of destiny, which sinks back to the somnolence of daily life The protagonist of the stories is in fact destiny itself.

Though invisible, fate may be considered a leading character in the One Thousand and One Nights. Early examples of the foreshadowing technique of repetitive designation , now known as " Chekhov's gun ", occur in the One Thousand and One Nights , which contains "repeated references to some character or object which appears insignificant when first mentioned but which reappears later to intrude suddenly in the narrative".

Another early foreshadowing technique is formal patterning , "the organization of the events, actions and gestures which constitute a narrative and give shape to a story; when done well, formal patterning allows the audience the pleasure of discerning and anticipating the structure of the plot as it unfolds".

This technique is also found in One Thousand and One Nights. Another form of foreshadowing is the self-fulfilling prophecy , which dates back to the story of Krishna in ancient Sanskrit literature , and Oedipus or the death of Heracles in the plays of Sophocles.

A variation of this device is the self-fulfilling dream, which can be found in Arabic literature or the dreams of Joseph and his conflicts with his brothers, in the Hebrew Bible.

Several tales in the One Thousand and One Nights use this device to foreshadow what is going to happen, as a special form of literary prolepsis.

A notable example is "The Ruined Man who Became Rich Again through a Dream", in which a man is told in his dream to leave his native city of Baghdad and travel to Cairo , where he will discover the whereabouts of some hidden treasure.

The man travels there and experiences misfortune, ending up in jail, where he tells his dream to a police officer. The officer mocks the idea of foreboding dreams and tells the protagonist that he himself had a dream about a house with a courtyard and fountain in Baghdad where treasure is buried under the fountain.

The man recognizes the place as his own house and, after he is released from jail, he returns home and digs up the treasure.

In other words, the foreboding dream not only predicted the future, but the dream was the cause of its prediction coming true.

Another variation of the self-fulfilling prophecy can be seen in "The Tale of Attaf", where Harun al-Rashid consults his library the House of Wisdom , reads a random book, "falls to laughing and weeping and dismisses the faithful vizier Ja'far ibn Yahya from sight.

Ja'afar, "disturbed and upset flees Baghdad and plunges into a series of adventures in Damascus , involving Attaf and the woman whom Attaf eventually marries.

In other words, it was Harun's reading of the book that provoked the adventures described in the book to take place.

This is an early example of reverse causation. In the 12th century, this tale was translated into Latin by Petrus Alphonsi and included in his Disciplina Clericalis , [61] alongside the " Sindibad " story cycle.

Leitwortstil is 'the purposeful repetition of words' in a given literary piece that "usually expresses a motif or theme important to the given story".

This device occurs in the One Thousand and One Nights , which binds several tales in a story cycle. The storytellers of the tales relied on this technique "to shape the constituent members of their story cycles into a coherent whole.

Thematic patterning is "the distribution of recurrent thematic concepts and moralistic motifs among the various incidents and frames of a story.

In a skillfully crafted tale, thematic patterning may be arranged so as to emphasize the unifying argument or salient idea which disparate events and disparate frames have in common".

This technique also dates back to the One Thousand and One Nights and earlier. Several different variants of the " Cinderella " story, which has its origins in the Egyptian story of Rhodopis , appear in the One Thousand and One Nights , including "The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger sibling harassed by two jealous elders.

In some of these, the siblings are female, while in others they are male. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers.

The Nights contain many examples of sexual humour. Some of this borders on satire , as in the tale called "Ali with the Large Member" which pokes fun at obsession with human penis size.

The literary device of the unreliable narrator was used in several fictional medieval Arabic tales of the One Thousand and One Nights.

Seven viziers attempt to save his life by narrating seven stories to prove the unreliability of women, and the courtesan responds back by narrating a story to prove the unreliability of viziers.

An example of the murder mystery [67] and suspense thriller genres in the collection, with multiple plot twists [68] and detective fiction elements [69] was " The Three Apples ", also known as Hikayat al-sabiyya 'l-maqtula "The Tale of the Murdered Young Woman" , [70] one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights.

In this tale, Harun al-Rashid comes to possess a chest, which, when opened, contains the body of a young woman.

Harun gives his vizier, Ja'far , three days to find the culprit or be executed. At the end of three days, when Ja'far is about to be executed for his failure, two men come forward, both claiming to be the murderer.

As they tell their story it transpires that, although the younger of them, the woman's husband, was responsible for her death, some of the blame attaches to a slave, who had taken one of the apples mentioned in the title and caused the woman's murder.

Harun then gives Ja'far three more days to find the guilty slave. When he yet again fails to find the culprit, and bids his family goodbye before his execution, he discovers by chance his daughter has the apple, which she obtained from Ja'far's own slave, Rayhan.

Thus the mystery is solved. Another Nights tale with crime fiction elements was "The Hunchback's Tale" story cycle which, unlike "The Three Apples", was more of a suspenseful comedy and courtroom drama rather than a murder mystery or detective fiction.

The story is set in a fictional China and begins with a hunchback, the emperor's favourite comedian , being invited to dinner by a tailor couple.

The hunchback accidentally chokes on his food from laughing too hard and the couple, fearful that the emperor will be furious, take his body to a Jewish doctor 's clinic and leave him there.

This leads to the next tale in the cycle, the "Tale of the Jewish Doctor", where the doctor accidentally trips over the hunchback's body, falls down the stairs with him, and finds him dead, leading him to believe that the fall had killed him.

The doctor then dumps his body down a chimney, and this leads to yet another tale in the cycle, which continues with twelve tales in total, leading to all the people involved in this incident finding themselves in a courtroom , all making different claims over how the hunchback had died.

Haunting is used as a plot device in gothic fiction and horror fiction , as well as modern paranormal fiction. Legends about haunted houses have long appeared in literature.

Horror fiction elements are also found in "The City of Brass" tale, which revolves around a ghost town. The horrific nature of Scheherazade 's situation is magnified in Stephen King 's Misery , in which the protagonist is forced to write a novel to keep his captor from torturing and killing him.

The influence of the Nights on modern horror fiction is certainly discernible in the work of H. As a child, he was fascinated by the adventures recounted in the book, and he attributes some of his creations to his love of the Nights.

Several stories within the One Thousand and One Nights feature early science fiction elements. One example is "The Adventures of Bulukiya", where the protagonist Bulukiya's quest for the herb of immortality leads him to explore the seas, journey to Paradise and to Hell , and travel across the cosmos to different worlds much larger than his own world, anticipating elements of galactic science fiction; [76] along the way, he encounters societies of djinn , [77] mermaids , talking serpents , talking trees, and other forms of life.

In another Nights tale, "Abdullah the Fisherman and Abdullah the Merman", the protagonist Abdullah the Fisherman gains the ability to breathe underwater and discovers an underwater society that is portrayed as an inverted reflection of society on land, in that the underwater society follows a form of primitive communism where concepts like money and clothing do not exist.

Other Arabian Nights tales also depict Amazon societies dominated by women, lost ancient technologies, advanced ancient civilizations that went astray, and catastrophes which overwhelmed them.

Characters occasionally provide poetry in certain settings, covering many uses. However, pleading, beseeching and praising the powerful is the most significant.

In a typical example, expressing feelings of happiness to oneself from Night , Prince Qamar Al-Zaman, [85] standing outside the castle, wants to inform Queen Bodour of his arrival.

He wraps his ring in a paper and hands it to the servant who delivers it to the Queen. When she opens it and sees the ring, joy conquers her, and out of happiness she chants this poem Arabic: And I have regretted the separation of our companionship:: An eon, and tears flooded my eyes And I've sworn if time brought us back together:: I'll never utter any separation with my tongue Joy conquered me to the point of:: You cry out of joy and out of sadness.

Long, long have I bewailed the sev'rance of our loves, With tears that from my lids streamed down like burning rain And vowed that, if the days deign reunite us two, My lips should never speak of severance again: Joy hath o'erwhelmed me so that, for the very stress Of that which gladdens me to weeping I am fain.

Tears are become to you a habit, O my eyes, So that ye weep as well for gladness as for pain. The influence of the versions of The Nights on world literature is immense.

Writers as diverse as Henry Fielding to Naguib Mahfouz have alluded to the collection by name in their own works.

Lovecraft , Marcel Proust , A. Byatt and Angela Carter.

Arabian nights -

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Man oh man,Anmelden heist: Ich bin an Also ich spiele dieses Spiel total gerne, und habe es auch schon ganz durch geschafft. One such cycle of Arabic tales centres around a small group of historical figures from 9th-century Baghdad, including the caliph Harun al-Rashid died , his vizier Jafar al-Barmaki d.

Another cluster is a body of stories from late medieval Cairo in which are mentioned persons and places that date to as late as the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

Two main Arabic manuscript traditions of the Nights are known: The Syrian tradition includes the oldest manuscripts; these versions are also much shorter and include fewer tales.

It is represented in print by the so-called Calcutta I — and most notably by the Leiden edition , which is based above all on the Galland manuscript.

It is believed to be the purest expression of the style of the mediaeval Arabian Nights. Texts of the Egyptian tradition emerge later and contain many more tales of much more varied content; a much larger number of originally independent tales have been incorporated into the collection over the centuries, most of them after the Galland manuscript was written, [37] and were being included as late as in the 18th and 19th centuries, perhaps in order to attain the eponymous number of nights.

The final product of this tradition, the so-called Zotenberg Egyptian Recension , does contain nights and is reflected in print, with slight variations, by the editions known as the Bulaq and the Macnaghten or Calcutta II — All extant substantial versions of both recensions share a small common core of tales: The texts of the Syrian recension do not contain much beside that core.

It is debated which of the Arabic recensions is more "authentic" and closer to the original: The first European version — was translated into French by Antoine Galland from an Arabic text of the Syrian recension and other sources.

He wrote that he heard them from a Syrian Christian storyteller from Aleppo , a Maronite scholar whom he called "Hanna Diab. As scholars were looking for the presumed "complete" and "original" form of the Nights, they naturally turned to the more voluminous texts of the Egyptian recension, which soon came to be viewed as the "standard version".

The first translations of this kind, such as that of Edward Lane , , were bowdlerized. Burton's original 10 volumes were followed by a further six seven in the Baghdad Edition and perhaps others entitled The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Night , which were printed between and It has, however, been criticized for its "archaic language and extravagant idiom" and "obsessive focus on sexuality" and has even been called an "eccentric ego-trip " and a "highly personal reworking of the text".

Later versions of the Nights include that of the French doctor J. Mardrus , issued from to It was translated into English by Powys Mathers , and issued in Like Payne's and Burton's texts, it is based on the Egyptian recension and retains the erotic material, indeed expanding on it, but it has been criticized for inaccuracy.

Mahdi argued that this version is the earliest extant one a view that is largely accepted today and that it reflects most closely a "definitive" coherent text ancestral to all others that he believed to have existed during the Mamluk period a view that remains contentious.

In a new English translation was published by Penguin Classics in three volumes. It is translated by Malcolm C. Lyons and Ursula Lyons with introduction and annotations by Robert Irwin.

It contains, in addition to the standard text of Nights, the so-called "orphan stories" of Aladdin and Ali Baba as well as an alternative ending to The seventh journey of Sindbad from Antoine Galland 's original French.

As the translator himself notes in his preface to the three volumes, "1493o attempt has been made to superimpose on the translation changes that would be needed to 'rectify' Moreover, it streamlines somewhat and has cuts.

In this sense it is not, as claimed, a complete translation. Scholars have assembled a timeline concerning the publication history of The Nights: The One Thousand and One Nights and various tales within it make use of many innovative literary techniques , which the storytellers of the tales rely on for increased drama, suspense, or other emotions.

An early example of the frame story , or framing device , is employed in the One Thousand and One Nights , in which the character Scheherazade narrates a set of tales most often fairy tales to the Sultan Shahriyar over many nights.

Many of Scheherazade's tales are also frame stories, such as the Tale of Sindbad the Seaman and Sindbad the Landsman being a collection of adventures related by Sindbad the Seaman to Sindbad the Landsman.

An early example of the " story within a story " technique can be found in the One Thousand and One Nights , which can be traced back to earlier Persian and Indian storytelling traditions, most notably the Panchatantra of ancient Sanskrit literature.

The Nights , however, improved on the Panchatantra in several ways, particularly in the way a story is introduced. In the Panchatantra , stories are introduced as didactic analogies, with the frame story referring to these stories with variants of the phrase "If you're not careful, that which happened to the louse and the flea will happen to you.

The general story is narrated by an unknown narrator, and in this narration the stories are told by Scheherazade. In most of Scheherazade's narrations there are also stories narrated, and even in some of these, there are some other stories.

Within the "Sinbad the Sailor" story itself, the protagonist Sinbad the Sailor narrates the stories of his seven voyages to Sinbad the Porter.

In yet another tale Scheherazade narrates, " The Fisherman and the Jinni ", the "Tale of the Wazir and the Sage Duban " is narrated within it, and within that there are three more tales narrated.

Dramatic visualization is "the representing of an object or character with an abundance of descriptive detail, or the mimetic rendering of gestures and dialogue in such a way as to make a given scene 'visual' or imaginatively present to an audience".

This technique dates back to the One Thousand and One Nights. A common theme in many Arabian Nights tales is fate and destiny. The Italian filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini observed: So a chain of anomalies is set up.

And the more logical, tightly knit, essential this chain is, the more beautiful the tale. By 'beautiful' I mean vital, absorbing and exhilarating.

The chain of anomalies always tends to lead back to normality. The end of every tale in The One Thousand and One Nights consists of a 'disappearance' of destiny, which sinks back to the somnolence of daily life The protagonist of the stories is in fact destiny itself.

Though invisible, fate may be considered a leading character in the One Thousand and One Nights. Early examples of the foreshadowing technique of repetitive designation , now known as " Chekhov's gun ", occur in the One Thousand and One Nights , which contains "repeated references to some character or object which appears insignificant when first mentioned but which reappears later to intrude suddenly in the narrative".

Another early foreshadowing technique is formal patterning , "the organization of the events, actions and gestures which constitute a narrative and give shape to a story; when done well, formal patterning allows the audience the pleasure of discerning and anticipating the structure of the plot as it unfolds".

This technique is also found in One Thousand and One Nights. Another form of foreshadowing is the self-fulfilling prophecy , which dates back to the story of Krishna in ancient Sanskrit literature , and Oedipus or the death of Heracles in the plays of Sophocles.

A variation of this device is the self-fulfilling dream, which can be found in Arabic literature or the dreams of Joseph and his conflicts with his brothers, in the Hebrew Bible.

Several tales in the One Thousand and One Nights use this device to foreshadow what is going to happen, as a special form of literary prolepsis. A notable example is "The Ruined Man who Became Rich Again through a Dream", in which a man is told in his dream to leave his native city of Baghdad and travel to Cairo , where he will discover the whereabouts of some hidden treasure.

The man travels there and experiences misfortune, ending up in jail, where he tells his dream to a police officer. The officer mocks the idea of foreboding dreams and tells the protagonist that he himself had a dream about a house with a courtyard and fountain in Baghdad where treasure is buried under the fountain.

The man recognizes the place as his own house and, after he is released from jail, he returns home and digs up the treasure. In other words, the foreboding dream not only predicted the future, but the dream was the cause of its prediction coming true.

Another variation of the self-fulfilling prophecy can be seen in "The Tale of Attaf", where Harun al-Rashid consults his library the House of Wisdom , reads a random book, "falls to laughing and weeping and dismisses the faithful vizier Ja'far ibn Yahya from sight.

Ja'afar, "disturbed and upset flees Baghdad and plunges into a series of adventures in Damascus , involving Attaf and the woman whom Attaf eventually marries.

In other words, it was Harun's reading of the book that provoked the adventures described in the book to take place.

This is an early example of reverse causation. In the 12th century, this tale was translated into Latin by Petrus Alphonsi and included in his Disciplina Clericalis , [61] alongside the " Sindibad " story cycle.

Leitwortstil is 'the purposeful repetition of words' in a given literary piece that "usually expresses a motif or theme important to the given story".

This device occurs in the One Thousand and One Nights , which binds several tales in a story cycle. The storytellers of the tales relied on this technique "to shape the constituent members of their story cycles into a coherent whole.

Thematic patterning is "the distribution of recurrent thematic concepts and moralistic motifs among the various incidents and frames of a story. In a skillfully crafted tale, thematic patterning may be arranged so as to emphasize the unifying argument or salient idea which disparate events and disparate frames have in common".

This technique also dates back to the One Thousand and One Nights and earlier. Several different variants of the " Cinderella " story, which has its origins in the Egyptian story of Rhodopis , appear in the One Thousand and One Nights , including "The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger sibling harassed by two jealous elders.

In some of these, the siblings are female, while in others they are male. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers.

The Nights contain many examples of sexual humour. Some of this borders on satire , as in the tale called "Ali with the Large Member" which pokes fun at obsession with human penis size.

The literary device of the unreliable narrator was used in several fictional medieval Arabic tales of the One Thousand and One Nights. Seven viziers attempt to save his life by narrating seven stories to prove the unreliability of women, and the courtesan responds back by narrating a story to prove the unreliability of viziers.

An example of the murder mystery [67] and suspense thriller genres in the collection, with multiple plot twists [68] and detective fiction elements [69] was " The Three Apples ", also known as Hikayat al-sabiyya 'l-maqtula "The Tale of the Murdered Young Woman" , [70] one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights.

In this tale, Harun al-Rashid comes to possess a chest, which, when opened, contains the body of a young woman. Harun gives his vizier, Ja'far , three days to find the culprit or be executed.

At the end of three days, when Ja'far is about to be executed for his failure, two men come forward, both claiming to be the murderer. As they tell their story it transpires that, although the younger of them, the woman's husband, was responsible for her death, some of the blame attaches to a slave, who had taken one of the apples mentioned in the title and caused the woman's murder.

Harun then gives Ja'far three more days to find the guilty slave. When he yet again fails to find the culprit, and bids his family goodbye before his execution, he discovers by chance his daughter has the apple, which she obtained from Ja'far's own slave, Rayhan.

Thus the mystery is solved. Another Nights tale with crime fiction elements was "The Hunchback's Tale" story cycle which, unlike "The Three Apples", was more of a suspenseful comedy and courtroom drama rather than a murder mystery or detective fiction.

The story is set in a fictional China and begins with a hunchback, the emperor's favourite comedian , being invited to dinner by a tailor couple.

The hunchback accidentally chokes on his food from laughing too hard and the couple, fearful that the emperor will be furious, take his body to a Jewish doctor 's clinic and leave him there.

This leads to the next tale in the cycle, the "Tale of the Jewish Doctor", where the doctor accidentally trips over the hunchback's body, falls down the stairs with him, and finds him dead, leading him to believe that the fall had killed him.

The doctor then dumps his body down a chimney, and this leads to yet another tale in the cycle, which continues with twelve tales in total, leading to all the people involved in this incident finding themselves in a courtroom , all making different claims over how the hunchback had died.

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